Communication Protocols & Network Standards (7.13)

Communication Protocols & Network Standards (7.13)” The Communication Protocols determine how devices on a network communicate. The tern standard refers to a set of criteria or requirements that has been approved by a recognized standards organization or accepted as a standard by the industry.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and IEEE are two examples of standard organizations. Industry because they help hardware and software manufacturers ensure that the products are compatible with other computing products.


Ethernet (802.3)

Ethernet (802.3) is the most widely used standard for wired networks. It is typically used with LANs that have a star topology. It is inexpensive and easy to install and manage. Ethernet network have data transfer rate from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps.

Ethernet standard does not specify any central computer or device on the network the network is available to receive communication. A collision occurs if two computers on an Ethernet network attempt to send data at the same time. In this situation the computers or devices resend their messages until the data transfer is successful.

Token Ring

Token Ring is a network standard that is typically used in LAN. It allows network devices to access the network by passing a special signal called token. Token is like a ticket. A device can transmit data over the network only if it has a token. Only one token is available in one network. That is why no collision can occur. But the data transmission rate is slow. When a computer wants to send a message it.

  1. Gets the token.
  2. Puts the data in the token.
  3. Adds the address of receiving computer.

Token ring is based in ring topology but can also be used in star topology. The token passes from computer to computer. The computer whose address matches with the address stored in the token gets the data. It then returns the message to the sending computer to indicate that the data has been received. Tokin ting network have data transfer rate from 4 Mbps to 1 Gbps.


TCP/IP stands for transmission control protocol/Internet protocol. It is the most widely used communications protocol today. It is used to transfer data over the internet and consists of two protocols.

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is responsible for the delivery of data and internet protocol (IP) provides addresses and routing information.

TCP/IP uses packet switching to transmit data over the internet in this process, data is divided into small pieces called packets to be transferred over the internet. The packets are reassembled in the proper order when they reach the destination. These packets travel via devices called routers.


Bluetooth is a network protocol that defines the method for transmission of data between two Bluetooth devices using short-range radio waves. The devices must be within a distance of 33 feet. However, the distance can be extended using additional equipment.

A Bluetooth device uses a small chip to communicate with other Bluetooth devices many Bluetooth-enabled devices are available like desktop computers, notebook computers, smart phones, keyboards and printers etc.

A Bluetooth wireless port adapter can be used to convert an existing USB port into Bluetooth port Most of the current operating systems have built-in support for Bluetooth.


Wi-Fi is developed by IEEE and specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other. It is a family of wireless networking standards that uses IEEE 802.11 standard there are various versions of the standard that support different speeds and distances.

The common standards include 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac and 802.11ad. it provides a data transfer rates from 11 Mbps, Most mobile computers and smartphones are Wi-Fi-enabled.



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