The development of electronic computers can be divided into generation depending upon the technologies used, Different generation of computers are as follows…!
Generation of Computer Basic Operating System Information
- First generation (Vacuum tube) 1942/1955
- Second generation (Transistor) 1955/1964
- Third generation (Integrated Circuits) 1964/1975
- Fourth generation (Microprocessor) 1975 Present
- Fifth generation (Artificial Intelligence) Present and Beyond
First generation Computers (1942/1955:-
The beginning of commercial computer age is from UNIV AC (Universal Automatic Computer). It was developed by two scientists MAUCHLY and ECHERT at the census 1955.
Second generation Computers (1955/1964:-
The Second generation Computer used transistors. The scientists of Bell Laboratories developed transistor in 1947. These scientists include John Bardeen, William Brattain, and William Shockley.
The examples of Second generation computers are IBM 1400 series and CDC 164 etc.
Third Generation Computers (1964/1975:-
The Third generation Computers used the integrated circuits (IC) Jack Kilby developed the concept of the computer field.
The first IC was Invented and used in 1961. The size of an IC is about ¼ square inch. A Single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors.
The computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive. The example of IBM 370, IBM system 360, UNIV AC 1108 and UNIV AC 9000 etc.
Fourth generation Computers:-
The fourth generation computer started with the invention of the microprocessor. The microprocessor contains thousands of ICs.
Ted Hoff produced the first microprocessor in 1971 for Intel. It was known as Intel 4004. The technology of integrated circuits improved rapidly.
The LSI (Large scale Integration) circuit and VLSI (Very Large scale Integration) circuit were designed. It greatly reduced the size of the computer.
The size of a modern microprocessor is usually one square inch. It can contain millions of electronic circuits. The examples of fourth generation computer are Apple Macintosh and IBM PC.
Fifth Generation Computers (present and Beyond:-
Scientists are now working on the 5th generation computer using recent engineering advances. It is based on the technique of Artificial Intelligence (AI) computers can understand spoken words and imitate human reasoning.
The ability to translate a foreign language is also moderately possible with fifth generation computers. Scientists are working to increase the speed of the computer.
They are trying to create a computer with real IQ with the help of advanced programming and technologies. The advancement in modern technologies will revolutionize the computer in the future.