INTRODUCTION TO DATABASES WITH EXAMPLES OF DATA” A collection of raw facts and figures is called data. The word raw means that the facts have not yet been processed to get their exact meaning. Data is collected from different sources. It is collected for different purposes. Data may consist of numbers of characters symbols or pictures etc.

Data is a vital resource for any organization. A resource anything that is valuable for an organization. The resource includes buildings furniture vehicles machinery and employees. Data is considered a resource because it provides correct information for makings proper and timely decisions.

It enables the management of the organization to utilize other resources effectively. It not possible to make a good decision if data is not available in the desired format.


Examples of Data:-

1: When students get admissions in colleges or universities, they have to fill out an admission form. The form consists of raw facts about the students. These raw facts are student’s name father’s name address etc. The purposes of collecting data are to maintain the records of students during their study period in college or university.

2: During the census, Government of Pakistan collects the data of all citizens. Government stores this data permanently to use it for different purposes at different times.

3: Different organization conduct surveys to know the opinion of the people about their product. In these surveys, people express their ideas and opinions about different issues. These ideas and opinions of the people are stored as data. The organization uses this data for the improvement of their products.

Data may be of the following types:-

1: Numeric Data: numeric data consists of numeric digits from 0 to 9 like 10, 245 or -5. The numeric type of data may either be positive or negative.

2: Alphabetic Data: Alphabetic Data consists of alphabetic letters from A to Z, a to z and blank spaces e.g. “IT Series”, “computer” and:” Islam” etc.

3: Alphanumeric Data: Alphanumeric data consists of numeric digits (0to 9) letter (a to B) and all special characters like+, %and @, etc. like 87%”, “$300” and “H#17”.

4: Image Data: This type of data includes charts, graphs, picture, and drawings. This form of data is more comprehensives. It can be transmitted as a set of bits.

5: Audio Data: Sound is a representation of audio. Audio data includes music, speech or ant type of sound.

6: Video Data: Video is a set of full-motion images played at high speed. Videos are used to display actions and movements.

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