THE COMPLETE REFERENCE JAVA2 CHAPTER 1″ When the chronicle of pc languages is written, the subsequent is going to be said: B semiconductor diode to C, C evolved into C++, and C++ set the stage for Java. to know Java is to know the explanations that drove its creation, the forces that formed it, and also the inheritance that it inherits.
Like the palmy pc languages that came before, Java may be a mix of the simplest parts of its made heritage combined with the innovative ideas needed by its distinctive setting. whereas the remaining chapters of this book describe the sensible aspects of Java-including its syntax, libraries, and applications during this chapter, you’ll find out how and why Java occurred, and what makes it thus necessary.
Although Java has become inseparably connected with the web surroundings of the web, it’s necessary to recollect that Java is 1st and foremost a programing language. machine-oriented language innovation and development happens for 2 basic reasons:
1. To adapt to dynamic environments and uses.
2. To implement refinements and enhancements within the art of programming.
3. As you’ll see, the creation of Java was driven by each component in a nearly equal life.
Java is said to C++, which may be a direct descendant of C. a lot of the character of Java is heritable from these 2 languages. From C, Java derives its syntax. several of Java’s object-oriented options were influenced by C++. In fact, many of Java’s process characteristics return from-or area unit responses to-its predecessors.
Moreover, the creation of Java was deeply frozen within the method of refinement and adaptation that has been occurring in programming languages for the past 3 decades. For these reasons, this section reviews the sequence of events and forces that junction rectifier up to Java.
As you’ll see, every innovation in language style was driven by the requirement to unravel a elementary downside that the preceding languages couldn’t solve. Java isn’t any exception.
THE BIRTH OF MODERN PROGRAMMING. C:-
The C language shook the computer world. Its impact should not be underestimated, because it fundamentally changed the way programming was approached and thought about.
The creation of C was a direct result of the need for a structured, efficient, high- level language that could replace assembly code when creating systems programs. As you probably know, when a computer language is designed, trade-offs are often made, such as the following.
1. Ease-of-use versus power.
2. Safety versus efficiency.
3. Rigidity versus extensibility.
PRIOR TO C PROGRAMMERS:-
Usually had to choose between languages that optimized one set of traits or the other. For example, although FORTRAN could be used to write fairly efficient programs for scientific applications, it was not very good for systems code.
And while BASIC was easy to learn, it wasn’t very powerful, and its lack of structure made its usefulness questionable for large programs. Assembly language can be used to produce highly efficient programs, but it is not easy to learn or use effectively. Further, debugging assembly code can be quite difficult.
COBOL AND FORTRAN:-
were not designed around structured principles. Instead, they relied upon the GOTO as a primary means of program control. As a result, programs written using these languages tended to produce “spaghetti code”-a mass of tangled jumps and conditional branches that make a program virtually impossible to understand.
While languages like Pascal are structured, they were not designed for efficiency and failed to include certain features necessary to make them applicable to a wide range of programs. (Specifically, given the standard dialects of Pascal available at the time, it was not practical to consider using Pascal for systems-level code.)
So, just prior to the invention of C attributes that had dogged earlier efforts. Yet the need for such a language was pressing. By the early 1970s, the computer revolution was the demand for software was language had reconciled the conflicting no one beginning to take hold, and rapidly outpacing programmers’ ability to produce it.
A great deal of effort was being expended in academic circles in an attempt to create a better computer language. But, and perhaps most importantly, a secondary force was beginning to be felt.
Computer hardware was finally becoming common enough that a critical mass was being reached. No longer were computers kept behind locked doors. For the first time, programmers were gaining virtually unlimited access to their machines.
This allowed the freedom to experiment. It also allowed programmers to begin to create their own tools. On the eve of C’s creation, the stage was set for a quantum leap forward in computer languages.
INVENTED AND FIRST IMPLEMENTED:-
By Dennis Ritchie on a DEC PDP-11 running the UNIX operating system, C was the result of a development process that started with an older language called BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. BCPL influenced a language called B, invented by Ken Thompson, which led to the development of C in the 1970s.
For many years, the de facto standard for C was the one the UNIX operating system and described in The C Programming Language by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie (Prentice-Hall, 1978). C was formally standardized in December 1989, when the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for C was adopted.
The creation of C is considered by mány to have marked the beginning of the modern age of computer languages. It successfully synthesized the conflicting attributes that had so troubled earlier languages. The result was a structured language that was relatively easy to learn.
It also included one other, nearly intangible aspect: it was a programmer’s language. Prior to the invention of C, computer languages were committees. C is different. It was supplied with powerful, efficient. generally designed either as academic exercises or by bureaucratic designed, implemented, and developed by real.
Reflecting the manner that they approached the work of programming. Its options were honed, tested, thought of, and rethought by those who truly used the language.
The result was associate degree so, C quickly attracted several followers World Health Organization had a near-religious zeal for it. As such, it found wide and fast acceptance within the engineering community.
In short, C could be a language that programmers likable to use. language designed by and for programmers. As you may see, Java has transmitted this bequest.