The database is an organized collection of related data that is stored in an efficient and compact manner. The word organized means that data is stored in such a way that the user can use this data easily. The word related means that a database or normally created to store the data about a particular topic.
For example, if a database is created for students, it will contain data about the students such as roll no, name address, etc. similarly, if the database is about the employees of an organization, it will contain the data of employees such as employees ID, grade and salary, etc. All data in the database is arranged in a table.
The word efficient means that the user can search the required data quickly. The word compact means that the stored data occupies as little space as possible in computer.
Rows are the horizontal part of the table. It is a collection of related fields. For example, the above table has three rows. Each row contains a record to a different person.
Columns / Field:
Columns are the vertical part of the table. For example, all values in the above table under the “name” field make a column.
Example of the database:-
Following are some important example of the database:-
1: Phone Directory:- The phone directory is a simple example of a database. A phone directory stores the phone number of different persons. Searching a phone number from a phone directory is very easy as all phone number is stored in an organized way.
2: Library: A library contains thousands of books. It is very difficult to handle the record of all these books without a database. A database system can be used to store the record of books, members of the library, issuance, and recovery of books, etc. the database can be used to perform a different calculation to find information about the business such as annual profit, trial balance, and ledger, etc.
3: Accounts: A database is used to control the accounts system of an organization. The accounts database keeps the record of all financial transactions of the organization, it can be used to perform a different calculation to find information about a business such as annual profit, trial balance, and ledger, etc.
4: collage: A college has many students in different classes. A database may use to keep the records of the students, fee transactions, examination information and other data of the collages. It can also store the ascendency of the students.
Database management System: A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that are used to create and maintain a database. DBMS is a general-purpose software system that provides the following facilities:
- it provides the facility to define the structure of the database. The user can specify data types, formal and constraints for the data to be stored in the database.
- it provides the facility to store data on some storage medium controlled by DBMS.
- It provides the facilities to insert, delete, update and retrieve specific data to generate reports, etc.